Abrams, R. K. (1980). International trade is subject to flexible exchange rates. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Review, March, 3-10th Soloaga, I, &Winters, L. A. (2001). Regionalism in the 90s: what impact on trade? North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 12,1, 1-29. The 17 provisions cover areas such as agriculture, anti-dumping and countervailing measures, capital mobility, competition, customs administration, environmental issues, export restrictions, labour issues, import restrictions, intellectual property rights, investment, public procurement, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, services, State aid, state-owned commercial enterprises and technical barriers to trade. See Kohl et al. 5 (first differences) refer to Table 7. The number of observations is slightly lower than that of B&B, making it unlikely to find exactly the same parameter estimates. This difference in the number of observations could be attributed to changes in imf (2013) or World Bank (2013) methods for estimating bilateral trade flows and GDP (deflators).
Nevertheless, the parameter estimates in both tables are very similar to those of B&B. In particular, the inclusion of additional lags leads to a steady increase in the TOTAL ATE. In addition, the total PDOs are of comparable size. Finally, the hypothesis of strict exgenesis is not violated. Magee, C. (2008). New measures to create trade and reorient trade. Journal of International Economics, 75(2), 349-362. Free trade agreements could move the global economy forward. Although they are unfavourable to uncompetitive domestic industries, they encourage local industries that can produce with economies of scale that are more favourable than those of other nations.
Aitken, N. D. (1973). The impact of the EEC and EFTA on European trade: a cross-cutting analysis over time. American Economic Review, 63(5), 881-892. Hamilton, C.B., &Winters, L. A. (1992). Opening of international trade with Eastern Europe. Economic Policy, 7(14), 77-116. Brada, J.C., &Mendez, J.
A. (1983). Regional economic integration and the volume of intraregional trade: a comparison of experiences between developed and developing countries. Kyklos, 36, 589-603. In related work, Park and Park (2011) finds that agreements concluded under Article XXIV of the GATT are more effective than agreements defined under the enabling clause. Protectionism is a political defensive measure.